During the greater part of March, 1945, the 133rd Infantry Regiment of the 34th Infantry Division commanded a sector above Monzuno (L824245), some 12 air miles south of Bologna. We had established the front lines of this sector in October, 1944, seizing the town of Monzuno on the fourth of that month; subsequently we operated in other sectors.
As April began we were still maintaining an active, successful defense of the same region. However, we had been alerted for movement eastward, beginning the night of 1-2 April, to a sector featuring Monte Belmonte (L904328), the important height the Regiment had captured on 23 October 1944. There, while vigorously defending our positions, we were to prepare for imminent offensive operations northward.
April 1945 was to be a month lastingly memorable in the history of the 133rd Infantry - and of the world.
[1 April 1945]
Throughout the dark, pre-dawn hours of 1 April the Germans were very sensitive to our patrol activity, as they had been constantly in March. Upon the slightest movement to their front the enemy brought down artillery and mortar and machine-gun fire on our troops. The front line ran, roughly, along the 28 northing, about two miles above Monzuno.
Ca' Valla (L811281) and C. Furcoli (L832285), both above the 28 northing, received most of the stepped-up enemy mortar fire. Heavy artillery and scattered machine-gun fire burst over the entire front. The forenoon hours were fairly quiet. Shortly before 1200 hours a small concentration of German self-propelled gun fire fell in Company G's area along Highway 64, northwest of Monzuno.
From 1830 to 1900 hours the regiment held a demonstration by fire. Taking part were our Cannon Company, the supporting 329th Field Artillery Battalion [85th Infantry Division] and the attached 804th Tank Destroyer and 757th Tank Battalions. Enemy reaction to the shoot was slight, most of the German return fire, about 65 rounds, falling in the First Battalion sector along Highway 6532 north of Monzuno.
Operational Instructions No. 17 (see March History) provided for our relief by elements of the 135th Infantry of the 34th Division and the 349th Infantry of the 88th Infantry Division. The reliefs, commencing the night of 1 April, were completed without incident of the night of 3 April (refer to march table accompanying Operational Instructions No. 17).
On this halcyon Easter Sunday, a day of blue skies and sun-swept fields, soldiers of the 133rd Infantry attended Easter services at Trasasso, the Regimental reserve area below Monzuno. In a natural amphitheater beside a hill, Captain Wilbur J. Kerr, chaplain, conducted services which included Easter music by the Regimental band, hymns by a 12-man choir, and organ selections. Catholic soldiers celebrated a special high mass said by Captain Bernard E. Burns, chaplain, in the village church of Trasasso. Chaplain Burns was assisted by two Italian priests and the parish choir.
This day appeared Operational Instructions No. 18, instructing all units of the Regiment to set the time ahead one hour at 0200 hours 2 April.
Six officers departed for a five-day stay at the Hotel Excelsior in Rome.
[2 April 1945]
The entire period of 2 April was quiet. During the day the Regimental rear command post group, Regimental Headquarters Company, the Regimental Medical Detachment, and the Regimental S-1 section arrived at L904287, two-and-one-half miles south of Monte Belmonte.
Published was Annex "A" to the list of friendly and enemy mines between the 88 and 94 eastings issued on 31 March. The latter list, [not] included in this history, is accompanied by Overlay Nos. 1 and 2 indicating, respectively, the location of the friendly and the enemy mines.
Second Battalion troops were paid for the month of March. Three enlisted men, not citizens of the United States, went to the Fifth Army rear command post in Florence to be naturalized.
[3 April 1945]
At approximately 0700 hours 3 April the First Battalion closed in its reserve area around Zenarella (L907300), 2,800 yards southeast of Monte Belmonte, At 1015 hours Colonel Walden S. Lewis, Regimental commander, established his forward command post at C. Torre dell' Eredi (L911308), 2,000 yards southeast of Monte Belmonte. Our Third Battalion, with the addition of Company A, and Company D's Mortar Platoon, completed its relief of the 361st Infantry elements by 2255 hours. At that time command of the entire sector passed to our control. The Third Battalion units were situated, generally, between the 31 and 32 northings and close to Monte Belmonte. (See Overlay No. 3 for all troop dispositions and boundaries.) Each battalion was equipped with one 57-millimeter gun from Anti-Tank Company.
First Battalion troops were paid this clear, windy day.
[4 April 1945]
There was little activity on 4 April. The First Battalion began a training program in its reserve area.
Between 1400 and 1500 hours about a dozen 105-millimeter enemy shells fell in the First Battalion sector along the Zena River. Most of the fire, evidently meant to harass the river road, landed around the battalion command post and the medical aid station. A member of the Medical Detachment was slightly wounded.
During the hours of darkness on 4-5 April enemy mortars and light- and medium-caliber artillery were rather active. Heavy harassing fire was received over the entire front, in addition to several small concentrations.
[At this point in time, the "North Apennines Campaign" was officially ended and the "Po Valley Campaign" begun.]
[5 April 1945]
At 0245 hours 5 April a Company L ambush patrol checked in. The members, one officer and ten enlisted men, had established an ambush at L897330, at the foot of the western slope of the Monte Belmonte hill mass. When our soldiers heard grenade and automatic-rifle fire some distance away, they went to investigate. On the way one man got off the path and stepped on an "S" mine at L896327, about 300 yards south of the ambush position. One man was killed and two wounded. (See "S-2 Reports".)
At 0530 hours, before dawn, a Company A outpost at L908332, to the right front of Monte Belmonte, spotted a group of Germans approaching the position. Immediately our men fired on the dim forms with automatic weapons, and hurled grenades at them. The Germans hastily withdrew, speeded in their flight by Company A's mortars. At 0605 hours, when it was lighter, the Germans again approached the outpost. Now it was clear the enemy, five in number, were bent on surrendering. Taken into custody, they said they had attempted to desert at 0530 hours, but our fire forced them to seek cover. Originally their number was seven, two having been lost or killed. The prisoners' unit was 3rd Company, 147th Regiment, 65th Division. Very little tactical information was gained from them.
During the day enemy activity was slight. The rate of hostile shelling increased somewhat in the evening, accompanied by fairly heavy machine-gun fire across the Regimental sector. Our artillery replied with counter-battery action, silencing much of the German fire.
Issued this day was a traffic schedule for the road running northward from Sassolungo (L905310), 1,800 yards below Monte Belmonte and 500 yards west of the Regimental command post at C. Torre dell' Eredi. Also published was a list of observation posts in our sector.
Each member of the Regiment received the bi-weekly ration of six cans of American beer.
On the night of 5-6 April our patrols were active in their attempts to gain information from enemy positions. (See "S-2 Reports".) The Germans harassed our front lightly with artillery and mortar fire. Just before dawn their machine gunners sprayed lead ineffectively along the entire sector.
[6 April 1945]
The daylight hours of 6 April were quiet. At 1130 and 1830 hours Anti-Tank Company's 4.5 rocket gunners fired on targets on Hill 376 (L922342), 1,600 yards northeast of Monte Belmonte. In the evening a small concentration of 81-millimeter mortar fire was dropped on an enemy machine gun position ay L919331, left of the Zena River along the front line above the Second Battalion's sector.
At 2000 hours Operational Instructions No. 19 and Overlay No. 4 were distributed to all units relative to our passing command of the sector and attachments to the 168th Infantry of the 34th Division prior to 0700 hours 7 April. (For details, refer to operational instructions mentioned.)
Late in the evening two enemy approached a Company I position at L891315, immediately below the company command post in the left sector. Hurling grenades, our troops swiftly drove off the marauders. At midnight the front was very quiet, the weather warm and clear.
This day, following instructions contained in a 5 April directive from Colonel John D. Forsythe, Divisional chief of staff, a Regimental replacement pool company was formed in anticipation of the coming offensive. First Lieutenant Wilmer C. Cooling was placed in command of the unit and cadre was drawn from all three battalions. When losses were incurred in the Regiment replacements could be withdrawn from Company R (for "Replacement") upon approval of Division. In turn, replacements would be withdrawn from the replacement depot, so that they would be available when needed. Personnel could be rotated between Company R and the rifle companies to provide training and battle indoctrination for the new men. Soon after Company R was organized, welcoming talks were given to the new men by Colonel Lewis; Captain Fred R. Edgar, Regimental chaplain; and First Lieutenant Martin J. Slominski, Information-Education officer.
One officer went to Rome for a brief stay at the Hotel Excelsior.
[7 April 1945]
Throughout 7 April enemy activity was negligible. Their harassing fires included two rounds of nebelwerfer (multi-barreled mortar), the first such shells directed against us in months. Our patrols were active in hours of darkness.
Published was Operational Instructions No. 20, giving the schedules of fire in the deceptive fire program to be carried out from 7 to 14 April by the Regiment. Ten- to twenty-minute preparations were to be held at various times during the period by our own and supporting and attached weapons.
By 2200 hours, in conformance with Operational Instructions No. 19, the 168th Infantry had taken command of the sector and our battalions were on the line. At the same hour our forward command post group left C. Torre dell' Eredi. It arrived at the new full command post at Sadurano (L886292), 3,000 yards southwest of C. Torre dell' Eredi, at 2230 hours. Elements of the 168th Infantry were to relieve those units of our First Battalion currently in action with the Third Battalion. Upon its relief, the First Battalion was to assemble in the Sadurano area. The other two battalions and our Cannon and Anti-Tank Companies were to remain attached to the 168th Infantry.
A chilly wind accompanied our patrols on their night's forays (see "S-2 Reports").
This day members of the Regimental maintenance section began cutting the exhaust pipes on our two-and-one-half ton cargo trucks so that the pipes would point sideward instead of downward, thus lessening the amount of dust stirred up by the vehicles. Short extensions were being welded on the pipes to prevent mud from clogging the exhaust exit. Technician Fifth Grade Malcolm S. Metcalf of Service Company completed a chart showing the vital parts of a one-quarter ton truck (jeep), with a description of first echelon maintenance procedure. Captain Charles G. Morgan, Regimental motor officer, intended to use the chart in connection with a drivers' school on preventative maintenance he was to conduct.
[8 April 1945]
On 8 April our Cannon Company, in position at Fornacetta, 1,400 yards southeast of Sadurano, fired 796 rounds, 390 of them in the day's deceptive fire demonstration. Among the targets this day were L900355, near C. Casulino, 2,500 yards north on Monte Belmonte; C. Spungiola, 1,200 yards above Monte Belmonte; L912332, near Gorgognano, about 1,000 yards northeast of the mountain, and Barchetta, 1,700 yards west of Belmonte.
[9 April 1945]
By 0020 hours 9 April elements of the 1st Battalion, 168th Infantry, had relieved that portion of our First Battalion which had been in reserve. By 0415 hours the entire battalion had been replaced and had closed in its assembly area in the vicinity of Sadurano.
At 0500 hours two enemy deserters were taken prisoner by Company G troops at L913327, near La Maddalena, 1,000 yards east of Monte Belmonte.
[10 April 1945]
On 10 April appeared Field Order No. 1. It announced that the 34th Division was shortly to resume the offensive northward, toward Bologna and the Po Valley, after a winter of active defensive tactics. The primary object of the 133rd Infantry in the attack was C. Casulino, our advance to wait upon the operations of the 168th Infantry on our right and the 363rd Infantry of the 91st Division on our left. D-Day and H-Hour were yet to be announced. (For full details of proposed operations, refer to Field Order No. 1.) Issued in conjunction with the order was an intelligence annex describing enemy dispositions and organization, and an administrative annex dealing with matters of supply, evacuation, traffic, etc. Accompanying overlays were No. 5, showing assembly areas for the attack; No. 6, marking phase lines and boundaries; No. 7, indicating supply and evacuation routes; and No. 8, noting bridges possibly prepared by the enemy for demolition.
In recent days, in anticipation of a call to offensive action, units of the Regiment had been disposing of all winter and excess clothing and equipment. Impedimenta was being reduced to a minimum.
At various times during the day various staff and field officers of the Regiment inspected, from the observation airplanes of the 151st Field Artillery Battalion, the terrain which would be encountered by our troops in the impending offensive: Colonel Lewis; Major Lewis A. Fletcher, S-3; Major James R. McClymont, S-2; Captain Cleo W. Buxton, assistant S-3; Major Warren C. Chapman, commanding officer of the First Battalion; and Major Timothy F. Horan, Second Battalion commander.
This day the first of a proposed series of one-day anti-malaria schools was held at the Divisional forward command post and attended by two enlisted men from each company and one Regimental officer. Post Exchange rations of candy and nuts and two bottles of Coca-Cola per man were issued to all members of the Regiment.
[11 April 1945]
Personnel of Company R continued to train intensively on 11 April. The training schedule called for field instruction in the actual firing of all types of weapons. (First Battalion troops were also trained during this pre-offensive period.) An athletic program was engaged in by the new combat troops, volley-ball and soft-ball being played every day. Orientation lectures were given to the men by Sergeant Arthur B. Erickson of the Regimental Information-Education section. Movies, shown in a large tent every night, were enjoyed also by First Battalion and Regimental Headquarters Company soldiers. The Wisecrackers, Regimental seven-piece band, performed often in all three areas. Dental inspections were held and showers taken daily. A radio with loud-speaker provided news and music at various times during the day. Church services were conducted every day.
This day ten enlisted men were transferred to the 15th Army Group, eight as military policemen, two as orderlies. Three officers went to Florence for several days' relaxation.
Issued to each member of the Regiment was a folder presenting a condensed history of the 133rd Infantry.
[12 April 1945]
Patrols were active again on the night of 11-12 April. Two Company G groups reconnoitered the Gorgognano church area, which was 500 yards in front of the forward platoon's position. One returned when it encountered intensive mortar fire from that vicinity. The other patrol, reaching a point just north of Gorgognano, later reported in minus one man, who had been killed by German machine-pistol fire. On this and other nights reconnaissance patrols checked trails and located and marked enemy minefields in preparation for the offensive.
Published at 1500 hours was Operational Instructions No. 21, disclosing that H-Hour for the execution of Field Order No. 1 was 0300 hours 15 April. The instructions were accompanied by Overlay No. 9, a correction to Overlay No. 5, showing assembly areas for the attack.
At 1800 hours appeared Operational Instructions No. 22, outlining the roles to be played by our units and [attached units] in the operation.
Issued also was an addition to the 31 March lists of friendly and known enemy minefields between the 88 and 94 eastings.
Our First Battalion placed into position its 81-millimeter mortars in the vicinity of Hill 442, and zeroed them in. (The First Battalion was attached to the 363rd Infantry.) Toward the close of the period considerable enemy machine-gun fire was reported by our Second and Third Battalions in the line with the 168th Infantry. This had been a cold day, with a light rainfall in the late afternoon.
[13 April 1945]
On 13 April the news of the death of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on the previous afternoon was the chief topic of sorrowful discussion by our soldiers.
At 1430 hours Operational Instructions No. 23 announced that H-Hour was changed to 0300 hours 16 April, a 24-hour delay.
This day General Mark W. Clark, commander of the 15th Army Group, presented awards to three members of the 133rd Infantry at the Divisional forward command post. The honored soldiers were Major Edward M. Fabert, First Battalion executive officer, who received the Distinguished Service Cross, and Staff Sergeant Fernando J. Tomassoni and Sergeant Joseph C. Gratz, both of whom received Silver Stars. General Clark also visited our First Battalion area.
[14 April 1945]
In the dark hours of 13-14 April and again on the night of 14 April the Germans lighted up the front with flares in an effort to expose any patrol or raid action on our part. Nevertheless, two Company E combat patrols occupied some high ground 200 yards in front of Company F's positions and dug in. The men were situated in the L9132 grid square along the Zena River. The intervening daylight hours were devoid of enemy activity. Our Cannon Company fired 264 rounds at the request of Second and Third Battalion observation posts. Among the targets were L897335, northwest of Monte Belmonte; L923338, to the right front of Gorgognano; and L901335, above Monte Belmonte.
At 1830 hours Outline Plans "One" and "Two" were issued, relative to our part in the coming offensive. Plan "One" was based on the assumption that the 168th Infantry, which was to jump off first, reached the black phase line in its zone rapidly; Plan "Two" assumed that the advance would be slow. Objectives were indicated on Overlay Nos. 10, 11 and 12.
[15 April 1945]
The day of April 15 was a day of preparation for the concerted attack to be launched at 0300 hours 16 April by the 168th Infantry on our right and the 363rd Infantry on our left. The entire artillery and other weapons of both divisions were to fire preparation fires for one hour before the jump-off. The time of this Regiment's entrance into the infantry assault would depend on the progress of the two attacking units.
The day Mr. Frederick ("Pat") O'Hair, formerly assistant field director for the American Red Cross in the Regiment, returned after several months' service at Fifth Army headquarters.
[16 April 1945]
D-Day and H-Hour occurred on schedule, at 0300 hours 16 April, preceded by an hour-long intensive shelling of German positions. As indicated previously, the 133rd Infantry's troop participation in the offensive was yet to come, but we engaged in the initial phase with our mortars, cannons and anti-tank guns and the field pieces of our attached and supporting units. Troops of the Second and Third Battalions and Cannon and Anti-Tank Companies also furnished covering fire for the attacking 168th Infantry soldiers as they passed through us. Throughout the day and night, too, the Air Corps flew many bombing and strafing missions over the enemy lines.
The leading elements of our attacking neighbors became engaged in fire-fights in each sector shortly after the jump-off and were able to make only slow progress by maneuver during the remainder of the period. The German artillery did not throw down their defensive fires and their artillery fires were relatively light on forward elements.
At 0700 hours the Regimental commander established a forward command post at Casola (L895295), 900 yards northeast of Sadurano (See Operational Instructions No. 24.)
This day the 34th Division completed its 500th day of combat. In observance of this remarkable record, veteran members of the Division appeared on a special anniversary radio program broadcast by the Fifth Army Mobile American Expeditionary Force Station. Representing the 133rd Infantry was Private First Class Donald Jones of Regimental Headquarters Company.
Preparatory to the launching of the large-scale Fifth and Eighth Army offensives in Italy special orders of the day had been issued by Field Marshal H. R. Alexander, Supreme Allied Commander of the Mediterranean Theater; General Clark; Lieutenant General Lucian K. Truscott, Jr., Fifth Army commander; and Major General Geoffrey Keyes, II Corps commander. These orders were distributed to all units on this day.
[17 April 1945]
On 17 April our attacking neighbors penetrated more deeply into the German's defensive positions, but the enemy still presented formidable resistance to the assault with all their weapons. The attackers' heavy pressure and the tremendous volume of shelling forced the enemy from the Sevizzano Ridge, above Monte Belmonte; the Gorgognano church and cemetery; and Poggiolo, east of Gorgognano.
This day Major Horan, Second Battalion commander, was promoted to be a lieutenant colonel.
[18 April 1045]
The period of 18 April opened with the Germans showering Hill 387, west of Highway 65 below Zula, with some 100 rounds of artillery and dropping approximately 30 rounds of 81-millimeter mortar just south of Zula. Toward 0400 hours the hostile fire reverted to the usual harassing efforts, but at 1545 hours the enemy directed 23 rounds of 105-millimeter shells at troops and tanks in the vicinity of L891340, 500 yards south of Monte Arnigo, southwest of Monte Belmonte.
At 0730 hours our First Battalion established a command post at L884318, 1,500 yards below Zula.
Issued at 1730 hours was Operational Instructions No. 25, concerning the Regiment's relief of elements of the 363rd Infantry in the sector east of Highway 65 this night and tomorrow before dawn. (See Overlay Nos. 13, 14, and 15 showing, respectively, primary objective and boundaries, the Regiment's zone of action, and check points.
In support of the Regiment in the coming operation were our own and the 135th Infantry's Cannon Companies; Company C, 752nd Tank Battalion; one platoon of Battery B, 105th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion, and a liaison from the XXII Tactical Air [Command], 12th Air Force. This liaison, popularly known as "Rover Joe", was to act as contact between the ground troops and the fighter bombers. Close air support was scheduled for our attack. Attached to us for the operation were Company A of the 109th Engineer Combat Battalion and one platoon of Company C, 100th Chemical Mortar Battalion.
At 2127 hours the First Battalion changed its command post location to L887324, about 500 yards farther north.
[19 April 1945]
We took command of our new sector at 0300 hours 19 April. No definite time had been set for our H-Hour: as soon as our First Battalion troops had relieved the 363rd Infantry's Third Battalion [we] continued the attack northward toward Monte Arnigo. The Second Battalion followed in the First's wake, jumping off at 0510 hours and heading northwest across Highway 65. At 0635 hours Company A reported "objective taken", plus two prisoners. Their unit was 14th Company, 147th Regiment, 65th Division.
The progress of our troops was slow but steady, impeded at times by small-arms and self-propelled fire. The Second Battalion suffered three men killed and five wounded. The Air Force gave our men excellent support, "Rover Joe" closely directing effective fire on observed targets for the fighter bombers. At 1955 hours our forward elements were reported at L892351, 500 yards north of Monte Arnigo.
Operational Instructions No. 26 appeared at 2000 hours, outlining plans for pressing the attack. Accompanying the orders were Overlay Nos. 16 and 17 showing, respectively, dispositions of our troops at 2000 hours, and objectives and boundaries. Our First and Second Battalions were to resume the attack toward the objectives at 2200 hours. The period closed with no late news from our forward elements.
[20 April 1945]
Early on 20 April the Second Battalion crossed Highway 65 without meeting any resistance. Northwest of Pianoro an enemy strongpoint was encountered. Not until 1700 hours, when tanks were brought up to blast the bunkers and houses the Germans held, was the point cleared. Company F soldiers, commanded by Captain James A. Gray, took 17 prisoners and killed many more. Three of our men met death from sniper fire.
Hill 357, long an enemy strongpoint and the Regiment's primary objective, was ours before dawn, Company A winning it after a brief fire-fight. Prisoners taken on the hill said that the Hermann Line, above Monte Arnigo, was not finished and would not prove to be as serious an obstacle to our push as had been expected. The prisoners also disclosed that the Germans had orders to pull out of the sector between 2400 and 0130 hours.
Company C infantrymen, in a sustained 4,000 yard drive northward, seized Monte Ca' dell' Albero, some 3,000 yards to the right front of Pianoro. The feat brought a congratulatory message from higher headquarters to Colonel Lewis and the Regiment. The company suffered a considerable number of casualties in the operation. Among those killed was the commanding officer, First Lieutenant Wayne D. Patrick, who led the leading squad in the final assault.
During the forenoon a new Regimental command post was selected, but before it was established the house in which it was to be located blew up. We had learned through prisoner-of-war interrogation that many buildings in the area were mined. At 1000 hours the command post opened at Barchetta (L892332), 400 yards southeast of Zula. Our troops were progressing rapidly now. Aside from a little mortar and machine-gun fire, slight resistance was met. At the new command post the staff was kept busy recording and plotting the coordinates of our fast-moving forward elements. To keep abreast of developments, the command post was again moved, this time to L883363, along Highway 65 about 1,500 yards north of Pianoro.
At 2400 hours our soldiers were reported to be on Highway 65 at L892394, 4,500 yards north of Pianoro. (See Overlay No. 18, showing disposition of troops as of 0130 hours 21 April.) A total of 106 prisoners had been captured this day.
[21 April 1945]
Shortly after midnight, on 21 April, word came from Corps headquarters that the Germans had retreated to the 55 northing, above Bologna. This good news was conveyed immediately to all our troops.
The Third Battalion, which by 0230 hours had reached a point on Highway 65 less than six miles south of Bologna, was in position to make the initial entry into the city. At 0500 hours Company K started toward Bologna with tanks of the 752nd Tank Battalion. A blown out bridge at L906437 across the Savena River forced the tanks to stop, but the infantrymen pushed on. However, the armor paused only long enough to locate a route across the stream. As soon as it was found Lieutenant Colonel Bruno G. Marchi, battalion commander, and First Lieutenant August F. Carioto, Jr., battalion S-3, mounted the tanks. They overtook Company K troops on the outskirts of Bologna in early daylight. Soon afterward the second platoon of the company was in Bologna, becoming the first American unit to enter the city. The remainder of Company K and the Third Battalion followed directly. Contact was made with Polish troops of the Eighth Army moving into the city on Highway 9. By 1100 hours the entire Regiment was established in the city and had begun garrisoning it. The First and Second Battalions had arrived by routes from south of Bologna, first having mopped up scattered enemy resistance by-passed by assaulting troops. At 1510 hours Operational Instructions No. 27 was published, announcing that the 133rd Infantry would be in charge of the area in the vicinity of Bologna (see Overlay No. 19), and ordering the patrolling of streets and the establishment of road blocks.
Except for dispersed sniping our entry was unopposed. Forty-three prisoners were taken in the course of the advance into town. Citizens crowded the streets and hailed our arrival and their liberation with cheers and flowers and gifts of wine.
Lieutenant Colonel Marchi, after being congratulated by Brigadier-General Harry Sherman, assistant Divisional commander, on the taking of Bologna, was named provost-marshal of the city. Road blocks were set up on the edge of town, to the east. The battalion established headquarters at the southern end, near the Regimental command post.
[22 April 1945]
At 1630 hours 22 April Operational Instructions No. 28 appeared. We were to prepare to move northward on Divisional order. The battalions moved to assembly areas in the southwestern end of town. Late in the night German airplanes strafed and bombed the Second Battalion area and other parts of Bologna. One Company F man was killed by strafing.
For the record, it should be mentioned that the Regiment's part in the taking of Bologna is featured in articles and photographs in the 22 and 23 April issues of the "Stars and Stripes", the May 11 edition of "Yank" magazine, and the 12 May "Red Bulletin", 34th Division newspaper.
Early on the morning of 23 April our troops rode out of Bologna, to begin the relentless, history-making pursuit of the collapsing German forces. The route of our annihilating drive was, roughly, northwestward along Highway 9 for some 100 miles, thence northward across the Po River and northwestward past Milan. In their rapid advance our tired but exultant soldiers were halted only briefly from time to time by pockets of fanatic but hopeless resistance. These they wiped out speedily, sustaining relatively few casualties. Large and varied units of German soldiers, disorganized, discouraged and incapable of stemming our ruthless attack, surrendered to us without a fight and with all their vehicles, equipment and other impedimenta.
Perhaps the best way, for reference purposes, to present the feverish course of events for the remainder of the month is to make each battalion's daily operational report part of this narrative. The unit journal, operational instructions, overlays and maps, etc., [not] included in this history, should be referred to also.
23 April 
0900 hours - Have received orders and are moving out. Ride along Highway 9 to within seven kilometers on Modena (L565665), then detruck to begin foot move. Reach point about four kilometers from Modena, just across the Panaro River, and deploy across country. Mission, to wipe out any pockets of German resistance as well as to cut off and destroy any enemy, isolated in the mountains to the south, who might try to infiltrate through our lines.
1300 hours - Company A on left, Company B on right, moving across country and reporting no opposition.
1350 hours - Companies have passed two pre-designated check points and report no contact with the enemy.
1600 hours - Five hundred enemy troops with tank support reported four kilometers from Modena. A large ammunition dump south of he town has been over-run and the ammunition is still intact and piled in neat stacks.
1700 hours - Mission of cutting Highway 12 south of Modena has been accomplished and battalion has pulled into vicinity of Saliceta (L550644). Troops are to set up road blocks and motorized patrols for the night. Only one-half of the proposed road blocks are erected on account of meeting a strong enemy delaying force across a blown bridge at Rubiera (L450678), along Highway 9 about 10 kilometers past Modena. Kitchens are to move in and, if feasible, serve a hot breakfast in the morning.
1145 hours - Battalion moves out in trucks northwestward on Highway 9. Detruck near Modena and go into the attack, moving westward on foot south of Highway 9. The only enemy activity is six rounds of self-propelled gun fire. The attack continues through the night.
THIRD BATTALION: Troops alerted to move at 0700 hours. Reconnaissance patrols dispatched. Battalion motors at 1300 hours to point four miles south of Modena, closing in at 1400 hours. Companies I and K move out to vicinity of L508669, west of Modena, establishing road blocks. Battalion given the city of Reggio nell' Emilia (L335730), 10 miles beyond Modena on Highway 9, as its objective. Troops move on foot, crossing Secchia River and proceeding westward, by-passing enemy strongpoint at Rubiera. Second Battalion is to by-pass this point from the south. Third Battalion route is north of Rubiera. First Battalion is to set up series of road blocks to the south of Second and Third Battalion operations. Third Battalion moves out, Company I leading, at 1900 hours. Plans changed en route; battalion clears out Rubiera before continuing.
REGIMENT: Command post moves to L614632, below Modena. This command post is the last of seven established for brief periods this day to keep up with our fast-moving troops. Operational Instructions No. 29 issued, announcing the formation of the 133rd Regimental Combat Team, with Overlay No. 20.
24 April 
0500 hours - Breakfast of steak and eggs served and troops are to move out.
0700 hours - Orders received to continue advance west along Highway 9. Enemy in Rubiera have pulled out.
0815 hours - Battalion command post established in Rubiera, with companies out as a screen around the town. Prisoners of war and Partisans are streaming into the town from all directions. Eight German soldiers taken in Rubiera and at least 50 others, some in civilian clothing, brought in by the partisans.
1000 hours - Battalion receives orders to move west of Reggio nell' Emilia.
1330 hours - Troops six kilometers southwest of the town. Battalion command post at Masone (L393697); companies occupying road blocks.
1730 hours - A barrage of enemy light-caliber artillery fire falls in Company B's area, killing one man and wounding seven, four of whom were hurt only slightly. The shelling occurred at the road block at L320700.
1900 hours - Company A in assembly area at Tarabuso. Company C still maintaining three road blocks, Company B two.
SECOND BATTALION: Enemy tanks slow our troops' progress during the early morning hours. The hostile armor does not fire, but moves on the roads ahead of our men. By daylight the tanks have pulled out. Company E assists the Third Battalion in the taking of Reggio nell' Emilia. Companies F and G reach their objectives just south of the town and set up road blocks. This day, despite intermittent opposition, Second Battalion troops advanced by foot more than 27 miles.
THIRD BATTALION: By dawn Companies I and L are on the southeastern outskirts of Reggio nell' Emilia, astride Highway 9 (Via Emilia). Enemy contacted at this point and fire-fight develops. Germans holding city with company or more of Infantry supported by artillery, self-propelled guns, mortars and machine guns. Friendly supporting artillery pulls in at approximately 1100 hours. (Company K, out of contact with battalion since jump-off last night, checks in during early afternoon, giving its position as in the vicinity of the airfield at Reggio nell' Emilia. Thus Company K is on the right flank of the Battalion.) Coordinated attack planned with Company I on the left of the highway, Company L moving up railroad tracks on right of road. Company K moving in from its position on the right. Battalion pushes into town in late afternoon with enemy retreating before it. About 20 prisoners taken and casualties inflicted on the Germans. The northern and western edges of Reggio nell' Emilia reached after dark, with only a few snipers remaining in the town. Battalion reorganizes, establishes road blocks and secures town. During the night there are Partisan and Fascist clashes throughout the area.
REGIMENT: Command post moves up from L614632 to Cittanova (L497666), three miles west of Modena on Highway 9, at 0100 hours. About noon the command post moved again, to L374710, where the staff began planning the rout of the Wehrmacht. The Regiment's mission so far in this push has been to protect the left flank of the Division. To this end, road blocks were established at L330691, L318692, L298694 and L 295690, with others planned at L 248695 and L224695. One of the prizes in this day's haul of captured equipment was a German 105-millimeter howitzer which the Regimental Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon seized intact at L358675, 12 miles west of Modena, below Via Emilia. Operational Instructions No. 30 issued, instructing all personnel to carry arms at all times, and to neglect no opportunity to capture disorganized detachments of enemy. Prisoner-of-war total for the day: 113.
25 April 
FIRST BATTALION: Expecting orders to continue westward through Reggio nell' Emilia and along Highway 9.
1400 hours - Company B ordered to watch for troops from the Brazilian Expeditionary Force, who are expected to make contact with us soon from the hills to the south.
1700 hours - Battalion moves out and bivouacs for the night near Cella (L257754), southwest of Reggio nell' Emilia.
SECOND BATTALION: Company F, supported by tanks, moves westward to Bibbiano (L209705) to establish road blocks. Company G goes to Cavriago for the same reason. Company E stays at Catinni, just south of Reggio nell' Emilia, and also sets up road blocks.
THIRD BATTALION: Company L assigned the mission of proceeding up Highway 9 with tanks until contact with the enemy was effected. The troops march all morning, reaching a point more than 13 miles northwest of Reggio nell' Emilia. Thirty-five prisoners are taken during the advance up the highway. After contacting the 168th Infantry, the battalion assembles two miles southwest of Reggio nell' Emilia in the afternoon.
REGIMENT: The road blocks at L295690, L298694 and L248695 were discontinued when elements of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force entered our positions. Company R, the Regimental replacement company, occupied Reggio nell' Emilia as an "S" Force and came under control of the 15th Army Group for the period of duty. The command post moved to L284729, two miles west of Reggio nell' Emilia, south of Highway 9. Operational Instructions No. 31 appears with Overlay No. 21, outlining the immediate missions of the battalions. Verbal orders were given to every unit permitting all personnel possible to be carried on one vehicle, a measure design to facilitate our advance. The prisoner-of-war total for the day: 119.
26 April 
0900 hours - Orders received to move to an assembly area west of Parma (L100855), 12 miles beyond Reggio nell' Emilia on Highway 9. The battalion departs in organic transportation and Cannon Company trucks. There is still some [weapons] fire in Parma, and the men must duck as machine-gun bullets crack over their heads as the vehicles pass through the town.
1300 hours - The Regimental Intelligence and Reconnaissance Platoon notifies Company A that there are an estimated 100 enemy in Paroletta, northwest of Parma, below Busseto (K882065). Company A, with two tanks, goes around the town to the left. Company C and two other tanks move into the town and begin clearing the buildings. Considerable machine-gun and sniper fire is encountered., and some tank and mortar fire.
1700 hours - Company C has occupied about one-half the town with one platoon of Company B.
1900 hours - Prisoners report that Germans have eight heavy machine guns in Paroletta. Company D has set up mortars about 800 yards south of the town. Cannon Company is firing in support.
2000 hours - Thirty-three prisoners taken. Enemy still resisting with small arms and machine guns.
2200 hours - Paroletta has been taken and the battalion command post is established at the southern edge of town. Major Chapman, battalion commander, orders advance toward the Po River continued at midnight.
2400 hours - Battalion moving northward in column. Rifle troops marching, clearing and searching buildings as they advance. Company C suffers one man killed and three wounded this day, while one Company D man was killed and one wounded.
SECOND BATTALION: Troops move by truck at 1130 hours to assembly area near Fidenza, 10 miles up Highway 9 from Parma. Arriving at 1300 hours, Company E is dispatched to clear enemy snipers from several houses in the area. Companies F and G move northwest, their objective Monticelli. At S. Pietro in Cerro (K813115) civilians told Lieutenant Colonel Horan, battalion commander, that some 1,000 German soldiers had passed through there in the past three hours.
THIRD BATTALION: Troops alerted at dawn. Entruck at 1000 hours, moving on Highway 9 through Reggio nell' Emilia, Parma and S. Pancrazio, arriving at assembly area southeast of Fidenza at noon. Regiment to attack in column of battalions - Third, First and Second, respectively. Platoon of tanks attached to Third Battalion. Battalion, motorized, with one platoon of Company I on lead tanks, moves out at 1400 hours. Passes through the outskirts of Fidenza, crossing the Stirone River and moving northward on the road to Busseto. At 1630 hours battalion contacts strong enemy force on outskirts of city. Troops detruck, deploy and engage enemy. Progress held up by intense small-arms fire and self-propelled guns. Battalion attacks with Company I on right, Company L on left and Company K in support. By dusk Company L takes and secures the railroad station. Company I keeps abreast, thus giving battalion a foothold in town. Several hours after dark battalion clears town, taking approximately 70 prisoners, and killing and wounding many more.
REGIMENT: Operational Instructions No. 32 appeared, with Overlay No. 22, outlining plans for the Regiment to assemble west of the Taro River on order. Command post assembled at P981901, off Highway 9 seven miles below Fidenza. The Regiment has been moving into assembly areas so rapidly in recent days that it has been necessary to arm and enlarge quartering parties to take care of any enemy that might still be in the proposed location. In the late afternoon the command post moved again, to K876045, 10 kilometers north of Fidenza, below Busseto. This day the Air [Force] demonstrated with close support and started fires in many enemy-held buildings. Prisoner-of-war haul for the day: 180.
27 April 
0330 hours - Troops moving northward toward the Po River are held up by the Molina Canal between Fidenza and Busseto. Rifle troops cross on foot, but vehicles must take long way around to find a vehicular bridge,
0700 hours - Column reforms just south of Busseto.
1200 hours - Battalion established in Zibello (P953105), 5 kilometers northeast of Busseto. Company B reconnoitering to the Po River. Companies A and B engaged in fire-fight with enemy near river.
2000 hours - Battalion assembles in Busseto. Company B reconnaissance group met heavy self-propelled fire.
2400 hours - All elements assembled and bivouaced in Busseto.
SECOND BATTALION: (The following report is based on an account by Second Lieutenant Ronald C. Davis, Company H.)
After midnight patrols were sent to clear the houses in S. Pietro in Cerro; one German was captured. He said that the enemy forces were moving a short distance in front of the battalion. He also declared that another German regiment would be through the town before daylight. During this time a farmer came to the command post and informed the battalion commander that there were 50 enemy in his house who wished to surrender. Captain Gray of Company F and a group of enlisted men went to the house and took in custody a German lieutenant and his 49 men, together with their baggage, wagons and draft horses.
At the battalion rear command post near Cortemaggiore (K797088), meanwhile, contact was being made with the enemy forces reported by the prisoner taken earlier. Members of the battalion Headquarters Company at the rear command post watched a column of Germans, with many wagons and artillery pieces, march past the door of the building they occupied, almost on the heels of our troops now only a few minutes [3 km.] ahead in S. Pietro in Cerro. First Lieutenant Ralph Lager, transportation officer, and his driver were surprised and surrounded in the darkness by the enemy column. Lieutenant Lager was wounded in the leg, later losing his limb, and the driver was killed by machine-pistol fire. The officer, despite his painful wound lay quietly until the Germans gave up their search for him. Second Lieutenant John Decker, battalion S-2, succeeded in telephoning a partial account of events to Lieutenant Colonel Horan before the Germans found and cut the communication wire. Captain Edward H Meany, Jr., battalion S-1, then led a group of Headquarters Company men in harassing the tail of the enemy column, scattering the rear elements and causing many observed casualties in the half-light of approaching dawn.
At the battalion forward headquarters in S. Pietro in Cerro, Lieutenant Colonel Horan quickly deployed his troops to meet the oncoming hostile forces. Company E, commanded by Captain Allan W. Sudholt, took up positions in the outermost buildings to the south in S. Pietro in Cerro. Companies F and G spread out in other buildings of the town. Two 57-millimeter anti-tank guns were emplaced by members of the Anti-Tank Company platoon, one pointing south directly at the approaching enemy, and the other aimed eastward along another possible route of hostile approach. Heavy machine guns manned by Company H men were placed in supporting positions on the open road.
Company E soldiers were instructed not to begin firing until the enemy's advance units had passed our outposts, as it was hoped that the sight of our troops in defensive position in the heart of the town might convince the enemy that surrender would be the best course to follow. A German soldier, however, turned into the courtyard of a Company E building and there saw one of our light machine guns, manned by weapons platoon men. He raised his machine-pistol to fire, but was killed instantly by our soldiers. The sound of the shooting was the signal for our 57-millimeter road block and our machine guns to go into action. The dawn was lighted up by the yellow flash of the 57-millimeter piece firing southward into the enemy troops, and by the machine guns firing eastward and southward. Pandemonium reigned on the roads: the Germans fled to the fields, where they took cover in the ditches and in farm buildings, and to the houses on the southern edges of the town. But, although numerically fewer, the Company E infantrymen withstood the onrushing Germans with every weapon at their disposal. The enemy line took shape: a great semi-circle, with the greater part of the enemy in buildings to the south of the village, while other groups moved northeast and northwest in flanking movements. The intensity of their fire increased; artillery pieces of varied caliber began firing into the town. A series of rushes by 10 to 20 Germans were repelled. Enemy hollow-charge weapons battered the building from which our men fired. Falling stone and brick injured some of the men, but everybody stayed at his post and the Germans were held off.
In the center of S. Pietro in Cerro, there was bedlam in the neighborhood of the battalion command post. The leading troops of the German column, which had almost reached the command post before our firing started, were scattered in heaps of dead and wounded, the latter screaming in agony. The few who escaped the withering blasts begged our soldiers to lift fire. This was done, and a dozen prisoners stumbled into the courtyard of the command post with their hands up.
In the meantime, Lieutenant Colonel Horan had informed Regimental Headquarters of the block he had thrown across the path of the German column. A call for reinforcements was made, together with an urgent request for tanks. In response, the Regimental commander dispatched "Company S", consisting of 121 men hastily recruited from the supply, kitchen, and clerical personnel of the Regiment. To relieve the besieged battalion they, along with five light tanks, went through Cortemaggiore, where they took seven prisoners. Commanded by Captain William Dubinsky, assistant Regimental S-4, the relieving group engaged the rear of the enemy line and took in custody 350 prisoners out of the total of about 750 who were surrounded by the Second Battalion in S. Pietro in Cerro.
Learning of the serious situation confronting the Second Battalion, the Third Battalion, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Marchi, swung quickly from its path near Villanova sull' Arda, [east] of S. Pietro in Cerro, and raced toward the town to aid its sister unit.
In the central buildings of S. Pietro in Cerro two 81-millimeter mortars were placed in firing position in front of the command post. Observers in the upper windows, aided by radioed corrections from Captain Sudholt, directed nearly 300 rounds of mortar fire at attacking bands of Germans attempting to over-run our outer positions. Incoming German artillery shells menaced all the troops. Platoons from Companies F and G fanned out to meet the enemy units flanking our central position. Our men in the outer buildings of the town were meanwhile taking the initiative. Noting the casualties caused by our mortar fire on the enemy, Captain Sudholt directed his Company E men to move out. Employing rifle grenades against the doors and automatic weapons on the personnel, they swept the Germans out of building after building.
At this point, a 151st Field Artillery Battalion observer with the [2nd] battalion commander finally made contact with his battery fire-control headquarters. By careful adjustment, he brought his battery to bear on soldiers south of the town, in some cases hitting buildings less that 100 yards from the men of Company E. Under this punishment - artillery falling on them from the rear (our guns were still in position in country to the south, over which the Second Battalioneers had passed earlier) - the German attack began to weaken. Our troops pressed their advantage: groups of five and ten prisoners were taken with increasing frequency. The flying column of the Third Battalion and armor rolled into town [from the east] and the situation was relieved, the appearance of "Company S" [from the south] completely broke the German will to fight. Prisoners taken numbered 738, including 11 officers. Much equipment was captured. Our casualties were two killed, 17 wounded.
THIRD BATTALION: Troops move from Busseto on foot in approach march, making contact with enemy at Villanova sull' Arda (P851117), five kilometers to the left front of Busseto. After a sharp fire-fight, approximately 110 Germans surrender to Company K. In mopping-up activities, another 12 are taken. Battalion receives order to move westward immediately to aid Second Battalion, which is engaged with a large force of enemy in S. Pietro in Cerro (see Second Battalion report above). This mission completed successfully, the Third Battalioneers receive instructions to continue the attack northward to cut Highway 10 leading into Cremona (P875237). Objective is road [centered] in the bulge of the Po River near Castelvetro Piacentino, three miles southwest of Cremona below the Po. Troops attack in mid-afternoon, but after advancing a few hundred yards are pinned down by heavy self-propelled, machine-gun and small-arms fire. In the late afternoon the battalion returns to S. Pietro in Cerro and reorganizes. At dusk troops move out in approach march making no contact with the enemy, who had withdrawn. Battalion moves on captured vehicles, horses, wagons, bicycles, and our attached tanks and by foot. By midnight the troops had seized their objectives, cutting Highway 10. Road blocks were set up at once.
REGIMENT: At 1110 hours the command post group moved from K870003 into Busseto. In the evening the command post was shifted to S. Pietro in Cerro.
This day Lieutenant Colonel Frank A. Reagan, Regimental executive officer, became Third Battalion commander. He relieved Lieutenant Colonel Marchi, who assumed Lieutenant Colonel Reagan's former post.
28 April 
0900 hours - Battalion moving southward on Highway 9 in the vicinity of Fidenza. We are to be in mobile reserve, ready to move in any direction on short notice. Company B contacts elements of Brazilian Expeditionary Force at Fidenza.
1800 hours - Companies have motorized patrols out, but no meeting with any enemy is reported.
SECOND BATTALION: Troops move from Monticelli to Fontane (K978906), below Fidenza on Highway 9. Local security put out, no enemy reported.
THIRD BATTALION: Troops motor to assembly area southeast of Fiorenzuola d'Arda (K775015), 12 kilometers beyond Fidenza on Highway 9, arriving at 1200 hours.
REGIMENT: The command post is shifted to Fiorenzuola d'Arda shortly after midnight. At 1515 hours Operational Instructions No. 33 appear, with Overlay No. 23, in reference to maintaining motor patrols on Highway 9 from the Taro River to Piacenza. At 2230 hours Operational Instructions No. 34 is published, announcing that the Regiment would assemble at Bozzolo (grid square 2418) [50 km ENE of present command post, across Po River].
29 April 
REGIMENT [part 1]: Operational Instructions No. 35 issued at 0500 hours, announcing Regiment's move to Bergamo. [Fidenza to Bergamo is about 90 km, 60 miles, NNW straight-line.]
FIRST BATTALION: Moves out by motor at 0630 hours. Rides about 175 miles, traveling [southeastward] to Modena, northward to Mantova and [northwestward] through Brescia, [west] to a point about a mile south of Bergamo (K635875). There the battalion sets up at Azzano (K634836).
SECOND BATTALION: Troops arrive in assembly area south of Bergamo at 1600 hours. The battalion evacuates 1800 Germans and a few Fascists, including the leader of all Fascist troops in northern Italy. These enemy had surrendered to the Partisans.
THIRD BATTALION: Motor move to assembly area south of Bergamo. Route: Fidenza, Parma, Modena, Carpi, across Po River above S. Benedetto, then to Mantova, through Brescia, thence westward on Autostrada to assembly area. System of road blocks, strong-points and patrols established in the region to gather in any Germans at large.
REGIMENT [part 2]: Germans and Fascists in Bergamo had surrendered to Partisans two days earlier, and we evacuated the haul of 1,175.
30 April 
0030 hours - Road blocks established and motorized patrols begin operating.
0700 hours - Patrols and road blocks report all quiet.
1550 hours - Battalion awaiting orders to move westward toward Milan.
SECOND BATTALION: Battalion moves to Bergamo and troops set up road blocks on outskirts of the city, relieving the Partisans of their guard duties. A large German hospital, with approximately 1,200 patients, was taken over.
THIRD BATTALION: Battalion is responsible for "cleaning up" area two miles east of Bergamo. Orders changed: battalion moves back to previous assembly area and is alerted to move.
REGIMENT: This is the first time since the push started 12 days ago that the command post group spent two successive nights in the same place, at Grassobbio, near Bergamo. We were scheduled to move, but the prisoner-of-war haul, 1,885, was so great that there were no trucks left to transport the Regiment. Operational Instructions No. 36 published, along with Overlay No. 24, announcing a coming move by the Regiment to the vicinity of Busto Garolfo (K010745).
So [reports] the 133rd Infantry in the momentous month of April, 1945. Victory was ours. The German forces in Italy were to surrender officially and unconditionally on 2 May; on 8 May the once proud and powerful Wehrmacht capitulated finally and completely in all Europe - a defeat spawned in Africa in the Spring of 1943, when the 133rd Infantry helped crush the German and Italian Armies in Tunisia.
The valiant, war-scarred soldiers of the 133rd Infantry - veterans of bitter, bloody battles on two continents - erupted out of their Winter positions in the Apennines early on the morning of 19 April, to storm more than 420 miles across the fertile Po Valley to within sight of the snow-capped Swiss Alps; scattering, engulfing, destroying thousands of enemy from nine German and three Italian Fascist divisions. In a lightning drive, causing confusion and chaos among our adversaries, we captured 4,584 men and officers, inflicted innumerable casualties, and seized huge quantities of equipment. City after city, village after village, whole countrysides were cleansed of an evil foe. Fearlessly and speedily our doughty troops executed the Regiment's mission of "mopping up" northern Italy. They were aided immeasurably by the Partisans, the Italian patriot forces, who exposed and rounded up many enemy groups and individuals.
Our casualties for the month were, happily, relatively few. Thirty-three men were killed in action, one was listed as missing, and 132 were wounded, for a total casualty list of 166. According to Regimental records, our casualties for the entire Italian campaign, as of 30 April, were as follows: wounded and injured in action, 3,631; deceased, 1,001; prisoners of war, 191; missing in action, 81; total, 4,904.
April, 1945, was indeed a period of eminently satisfying achievement by all the soldiers of the 133rd Infantry. Their victory was the long-deserved reward for the perils and hardships, the sweat and blood of Tunisia, of Salerno, Benevento, Alife, the Volturno, Cassino, Anzio, Cecina, the Gothic Line. Our fallen comrades did not give their lives in vain.
For the Regimental Commander:
s/Donald V. Allgeier
DONALD V. ALLGEIER
1st Lt., Infantry